Thursday, October 25, 2007


Greetings from India.

My name is Sanjay Jha and I am a practicing filmmaker in Bollywood, India.

I deeply relate Brazil with India for its diverse multicultural and multiethnic society. Brazil's rich cultural tradition that extends to its literature dating back to the 16th century and its large contribution to the genres of classical music fascinates me.

Presently, I am intrigued by the Portuguese history that dates back to the beginning of the nineteenth century. Particularly, the period portraying the struggle for independence by Pedro I.

As a student of cinema, I wish to craft a documentary of struggle during that period. The film particularly investigates the policies and political stunts practiced by Pedro I for acquiring independence.

Pedro (whose actual name was "Pedro de Alcântara Francisco Antônio João Carlos Xavier de Paula Miguel Rafael Joaquim José Gonzaga Pascoal Cipriano Serafim de Bragança e Bourbom") declared Brazil's independence near the Ipiranga River in São Paulo. Tearing the Portuguese blue and white insignia from his uniform, Pedro drew his sword, and swore: "By my blood, by my honor, and by God: I will make Brazil free." Their motto, he said, would be Independência ou Morte, Independence or Death! This statement is known as the Grito do Ipiranga [or the cry from the Ipiranga]... Pedro became Dom Pedro I, the first emperor of Brazil ruled for nine years.

I have been undertaking extensive research on the topic and have used primary and secondary level of research to accumulate information about it to a considerable measure. I have also read 'Every Inch a King: A Biography of Dom Pedro I, First Emperor of Brazil'.

However, I have a series of questions that still remain unanswered. This quest has inspired me to write this letter and to take this journey of film making further. I am looking for references of the letters of Dom Pedro I.

Precisely, I am looking for original handwritten letters by pedro I during his reign. Kindly, inform me if your museum/collections/library has any appropriate collections or information regarding the same. I am also willing to travel on my own to take a look and study them as research reference for my film.

Your help will be appreciated and acknowledged in my film.

Kindly find some time to respond to my query.

I look forward to hearing from you.Sincerely.

Sanjay Jha

Thursday, October 18, 2007

The National Anthem of Brazil

Hino Nacional/National Anthem

The Brazilian National Anthem is sufficient grounds for the fame of its composer, Francisco Manuel. Through its admirably warm and spirited melody, it took its place as the national anthem before it was accorded any official recognition. Various changes made to it have not distorted its essence, though they have softened its martial tone. Originally composed in a purely orchestral version for military band, it has been the various texts which have been set to it, especially that of Osório Duque Estrada in 1922, which have somewhat spoilt it.

The history of the anthem is the subject of controversy. In the view of some, it was composed for Brazilian Independence,others believe it was written for the 7th of April and performed on the 13th to a text attributed to Ovídio Saraiva de Carvalho e Silva, in which there are references to "a wise reign" and "a Brazilian monarch", the 7th of April being taken as the dawn of Brazilian liberty. A third view is that of Souza Pitanga and Ernesto Sena, supported by Alberto Nepomuceno who writes: "In the same year (1841), at perhaps the height of his career, Francisco Manuel composed the anthem to celebrate the coronation of the second Emperor of Brazil, showing himself to be a composer of great merit in this inspired work, which still animates the national soul today.

Decree No.15671 of the 6th of September 1922 officially adopted the words of Osório Duque Estrada, written in 1909, the first version of it. Law No. 259 of the 1st of October 1936 prescribed the version of Leopoldo Miguez for orchestral performance, and the version by Lt. Antonio Pinto Junior of the Federal District Fire Brigades, for military band, in the original key of B Flat; and finally a version in F by Alberto Nepomuceno for singing:

Music: Francisco Manuel da Silva (1795-1865)
Verses: Joaquim Osório Duque Estrada (1870-1927)

terug naar Brazilië algemeen


Ouviram do Ipiranga às margens plácidas
De um povo heróico o brado retumbante,
E o sol da liberdade, em raios fúlgidos,
Brilhou no céu da Pátria nesse instante.

Se o penhor dessa igualdade
Conseguimos conquistar com braço forte,
Em teu seio ó liberdade,
Desafia o nosso peito a própria morte!

Ó Pátria amada
Salve! Salve!

Brasil de um sonho intenso, um raio vívido,
De amor e de esperança à terra desce
Se em teu formoso céu risonho e límpido
A imagem do Cruzeiro resplandece

Gigante pela própria natureza
És belo, és forte, impávido colosso,
E o teu futuro espelha essa grandeza,

Terra adorada!
Entre outras mil
És tu, Brasil,
Ó Pátria amada

Dos filhos deste solo és mãe gentil,
Pátria amada


Deitado eternamente em berço esplêndido,
ao som do mar e à luz do céu profundo,
Fulguras, ó Brasil, florão da América,
Iluminado ao sol do Novo Mundo!

Do que a terra mais garrida

Teus risonhos lindos campos tem mais flores,
"Nossos bosques tem mais vida"
"Nossa vida" no teu seio "mais amores"

Ó Pátria amada
Salve! Salve!

Brasil, de amor eterno seja símbolo
O lábaro que ostentas estrelado,
E diga o verde-louro dessa flâmula
- paz no futuro e glória no passado -

Mas se ergues da justiça a clava forte,

Verás que um filho teu não foge à luta,
Nem teme, quem te adora, a própria morte,

Terra adorada!
Entre outras mil
És tu, Brasil,
Ó Pátria amada

Dos filhos deste solo és mãe gentil

Pátria amada

National Anthem


The peaceful banks of the Ipiranga
Heard the resounding cry of an heroic people,
And the dazzling rays of the sun of Liberty
Bathed our country in their brilliant light.

If with strong arm we have succeeded
In winning a pledge of equality,
In thy bosom, O Liberty,
Our hearts will defy death itself!

O adored Fatherland,
Cherished and revered,
All hail! All Hail!

Brazil, a dream sublime, vivid ray of love and hope to earth descends,
Where in your clear, pure, beauteous skies
The image of the Southern Cross shines forth.

O country vast by nature,
Fair and strong, brave and colossus,
Thy future mirrors this thy greatness.

O land adored
Above all others,
'Tis thee Brazil,
Beloved Fatherland!

Thou art the gentle mother of the children of this soil,
Beloved land,


Laid out eternally in the splendor of nature,
In the sound of the sea and the light of heaven,
may thou shine, O Brazil, flower of America,
Illumined by the sun of the New World!

More flowers put forth in thy fair, smiling fields
Than the in the most gorgeously reputed lands;
"More life is to be found in the groves",
"More love in our lives" in thy embrace.

O adored Fatherland,
Cherished and revered,
All Hail!
All Hail!

May the star-scattered banner flown by thee,
Brazil, become the symbol of eternal love,
And may the green-gold flag proclaim always
- Peace in the future and glory in the past -

But if the mighty sword of justice drawn forth,
You will perceive your children, who adore you,
neither fear to fight,
nor flee from death itself.

O land adored
Above all others,
'Tis thee Brazil,
Beloved Fatherland!

Thou art the gentle mother of the children of this soil,

Beloved land,

Wednesday, October 17, 2007

An Account of the War in Portugal Between Don Pedro and Don Miguel.
The book is here.

Tuesday, October 16, 2007

Independência ou Morte

"Independency or death." Oil on Canvas painting by Pedro Américo (1888).

Portuguese Constitution of 1826

S.M.I. o Senhor D. Pedro restituindo sua Augusta Filha a Senhora D. Maria Segunda e a Carta Constitucional aos Portugueses, 1832 (Pedro I with his daughter D. Maria II and the Portuguese Constitution of 1826 - lithography).

Dom Pedro: The struggle for Liberty in Brazil and Portugal, 1798-1834 by Neil Macaulay

The book has the look and feel of a dry academic text, and there are some notes as well. Yet the book is well written and becomes more exciting once you get to know the main characters. In the end it became a real pageturner for me, because I didn't know the result of the Portuguese war of succession. Altough it's just a biography of Dom Pedro, the book also serves as a political history of Brazil in the period 1798-1834.

The view Macauly gives is far more postive than other sources. Yes Dom Pedro always defended the constitution. But it was a constitution he made himself and in which he had great power. Not even close to democracy. The book ends rather abruptly with the death of Dom Pedro. A chapter with an overview of the importance of Dom Pedro and an evaluation of his strength and weaknesses would have been welcome.

The book is a good introduction to the interesting period in which Brazil became the only New World colony ever to have a European monarch ruling on it's soil. Which made for an easy transition to a Brazilian monarchy and helped to keep this immense land together.

Dom Joao VI and his son

Dom Joao VI and his son, prince Pedro (later, Pedro the First, Imperor of Brazil)